La oferta comunicativa en la propaganda electoral. Un estudio de la cartelería electoral en Andalucía 2008-2018

Giselle García Hípola


La presente investigación analiza la oferta comunicativa en las campañas electorales a través de la propaganda electoral presentada por los partidos políticos con representación parlamentaria en las campañas de 2008, 2012, 2015 y 2018 en Andalucía. Los carteles electorales son un elemento simbólico ya que la campaña arranca con la pegada de carteles y porque pese a los efectos limitados que éstos puedan producir, su presencia genera en la esfera pública la sensación constante de que se está en período electoral. Las nuevas dinámicas comunicativas se materializan en la propaganda y la publicidad electoral de la que se puede desgranar la estratégica y la segmentación de issue-voting que hacen los diferentes partidos políticos. De modo que analizando la cartelería electoral podemos establecer cuáles eran los puntos de partida estratégicos que tenían cada una de las formaciones políticas.


This research shows a study of the 58 electoral posters used by the different political parties that obtained representation in the Andalusian Parliament in the electoral campaigns of 2008, 2012, 2015 and 2018. The electoral posters are analysed because we understand that the communicative offer in the electoral campaigns is carried out through different media and in this sense the electoral propaganda through electoral posters is one of the most symbolic elements. Even in the digital era, this is due to the fact that: firstly, symbolically, the campaign starts with the sticking up of posters and where the parties turn this act into one of the campaign kick-off acts. Secondly, despite the limited effects they may have, their presence generates a constant sensation in the public sphere that it is an election period. This would provoke a constant sensation of electoral competition and appeal to the mobilisation of citizens. Thus, through electoral posters, political parties would be able to generate links with citizens and at the same time get them to consume political content (Wolton, 1995). The new communicative dynamics are materialized in electoral propaganda and advertising, from which the strategic and issue-voting segmentation of the different political parties can be distilled. Thus, by analysing the electoral posters, we can establish the strategic starting points of each of the political parties. The structure of the research work is based on the extensive literature on the analysis of political communication in electoral campaigns, following the same marketing phases (Nimmo, 1970; Lindon, 1977; Barranco, 1982; Norris et all., 1999; Reyes and Munch, 2003). Thus, for the context analysis phase we will dedicate the first two sections which introduce and theoretically approach the study of political propaganda and electoral advertising as communication strategies in the context of electoral campaigns and where we specify why Andalusia is selected as the context of study. Subsequently, in order to be able to decode the process of planning and elaboration of the message carried out by the different political parties in Andalusia in 2008 to 2018, the general design of the research on the electoral posters carried out in two stages and where the hypotheses on which this work is based are presented. In the fourth section, the results of the research are presented in relation to the implementation phase and the communication of the message through the electoral posters, and finally, the main conclusions of the research are presented in the evaluation phase. In this sense, the general design of the research revolves around a two-stage analysis: 1/ For the first part of the analysis, a classification scheme was carried out which includes a study of each of the electoral posters, following the political party strategy and by year. Subsequently, a study was carried out on two main variables: the structure and the design of the electoral posters. For the study of the structure, we have taken into account the issue-voting used by the parties, who the protagonists of the posters are, and the composition used for each of the electoral posters. When we focus on the analysis of the design, we refer to the general format of the election posters, the colors used, the sizes, whether they included references to social networks or website addresses and the types of posters used (understanding by type the format). 2/ In this section, the first analytical approach to be taken into account is the socio-political context in which each of the electoral posters is framed within the general context of the electoral campaign and the political context. Subsequently, a content analysis of each of the 58 posters was carried out using a coding manual with twenty-four variables that was created for this research. This coding manual was created by operational sing variables with the intention of measuring the general objectives of the research as well as the hypotheses. Thus, these variables measure whether the posters represent for example families or not, and what kind of families they are; whether male and female figures appear on the posters and if so, what they represent. We analyse what types of images appear on the posters, whether they are logos, drawings, pictures, etc., with the intention of finding out what the priorities are when it comes to representing what and/or whom. We focus on quantifying and contextualising which scenarios or environments the posters depict. To determine whether the posters are symbolic or pragmatic, as well as to analyse the level of personalisation of the posters, whether it is centred on the figure of the candidates, of citizens with the candidates, or not even the figure of the candidate. The way in which the voter is addressed is analysed, whether he or she is addressed in a personal or impersonal manner, as well as the direction of the poster. It is also analysed whether any professional sector or social group is reflected and, if so, which one it is, and finally. Finally, it is analysed whether clichés and/or stereotypes are used and how many and which ones they are. In order to select the units of analysis, this research focuses on the study of the 58 electoral posters presented by the different political parties running in the elections from 2008 to 2018 in Andalusia. These four electoral processes make up the temporal space of analysis and in terms of the actors we have focused on those political formations that were represented in the temporal space analysed. Once the theoretical review has been carried out, the methodology is presented, where the object of study is also defined and the objectives and hypotheses of the research are addressed, the analysis is carried out. In the last part of the work, we find the conclusions of the work, which deal with the most relevant findings, such as for example that: One of them revolves around the level of personalization of the electoral posters is constant and very homogeneous regardless of the political party in question.

© Revista de estudios regionales 2014 Universidades Públicas de Andalucía