Percepciones de los visitantes a un museo: un análisis de correspondencia múltiple y de clústeres

Juan Gabriel Brida, Erika Lourdes Gonzalez Rosas, María Nela Seijas


Este trabajo explora cómo los visitantes al Museo de las Momias de Guanajuato perciben los servicios del lugar mediante un cuestionario. Las percepciones se utilizaron para segmentarlos en grupos de opinión diferenciados a partir de un análisis de correspondencia múltiple y de clústeres. Los resultados muestran que las variables referentes a la opinión de los visitantes sobre los servicios del Museo son las que proporcionan mayor poder explicativo. Los visitantes entrevistados puede dividirse en tres grupos, que se interpretan como visitantes VIP (grupo mayoritario), fans e indiferentes. Esta información tiene implicaciones para la gestión del turismo en la ciudad.


As one of the most important museums in Mexico, due to the number of visitors it receives and the originality of its exhibition, the Museum of the Mummies of Guanajuato (MUMOG). In the first place, this museum has the largest collection of natural mummies in the world, while in the second place the particularity of its pieces stands out, such as the pregnant mummy and the smallest mummy in the world. The museum is part of the culture of death so deeply rooted in Mexico and has become the emblem for the city of Guanajuato, which has a population of 170 thousand inhabitants. The museum is divided into two areas: the traditional one, in the Santa Paula Pantheon in the capital Guanajuato and the recent Museum of Traveling Mummies, in the Sangre de Cristo Parador, in the city of Silao (El Financiero, 2020). In total, the museum in its two enclosures receives more than 700 thousand visitors a year. The MUMOG receives visitors by almost three times the population of Guanajuato. This figure is even higher than the archaeological zone of Cobá (fifth at the national level) and only behind the Museo del Templo Mayor (third at the national level), one of the most significant in Mexico. This shows the importance of the museum as a tourist attraction in the city. This work explores how visitors to the Museum of the Mummies of Guanajuato perceive the services and attractions of the place through a questionnaire for national and foreign visitors. The objective of this research was to identify the perceptions and attitudes of visitors to MUMOG in order to determine what factors explain the degree of satisfaction with their visit and to segment visitors into clusters that will guide the planning of the venue. During 2017, a questionnaire was applied for national and foreign visitors in order to understand the needs, motivations and experience of visiting the museum and the city of Guanajuato. In this regard, a group of interviewers was trained and the survey was conducted person to person. The selection strategy was to propose the filling of the questionnaire to random people when leaving the Museum of the Mummies, considering as a requirement that they were over 16 years of age. Another of the selection requirements consisted of the visitors being able to read and communicate in written form in Spanish. On the other hand, it is noteworthy that the gender factor was not considered when selecting the respondent. A total of 392 usable surveys were obtained. 75% of those surveyed had previous visits to the Museum, while the remaining 25% were visiting the Museum for the first time. Regarding other museums visited previously, 64% had registered visits in up to 4 museums in the last year and 13% had not visited other museums in that period. Mexico was the country of residence of the visitors in 90% of the cases, the United States (5%), Colombia (2%) and other Latin American countries were also represented. 53% of the visitors were men. Most of the respondents were in the age range of 25 to 45 years (51%) and had an educational level corresponding to a university degree, Master's or Doctorate (57%). Regarding the current activity, 40% of the visitors declared to be employees, 26% students and 19% independent workers. 89% visited the museum as a couple, as a family, with other relatives or with friends, while 7% visited it alone and 4% in a group. In order to carry out a multiple correspondence analysis, those variables with the greatest explanatory power were extracted. Thus, variables representative of the visitors' opinions about the facilities and services of the Guanajuato Mummies museum were selected (op signage, op information, op personal treatment room, op facilities for the disabled, op ticket office, op library, op guided visit , op rest baths, op activity museum), of sensations of the visit to the Museum (Learned something new, Guided, At ease safe, Stressed nervous, Losing time, Enjoy serenity happiness. Fun), the profile of the visitor (education income) and of information about the visit to the museum (museums last year, visited store, company, made purchases, satisfied, repeat visit, recommendation, previous visits). The analysis was carried out based on the Burt method. The results obtained retained 10 factors, which manage to explain 80.71% of the variance of the model. The variables used for the hierarchical cluster analysis are the ten factors obtained above. A set of indicators was calculated to determine the optimal number of groups. The detention rules used are the Pseudo-F or Calinski rule (Calinski and Harabasz, 1974) and the Pseudo-t -o Duda-Hart test (Duda and Hart, 1973). Both tests indicate that the optimal number of groups is three. Visitor perceptions and opinions were used to segment the population into differentiated opinion groups based on multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis. The results show that the variables referring to the opinion of visitors about the Museum's services are those that provide the greatest explanatory power. The population of visitors interviewed can be divided into three groups, which are interpreted as VIP visitors (the majority group), fans and indifferent. This information has implications for the management of tourism in the city. Note that the three groups of visitor profiles identified another area of opportunity with opinions on MUMOG aspects and services. In general they reflect areas of opportunity, especially for restrooms, rest areas and documentation center. They also show that signage, information, guides and additional activities should be improved. This work contributes to the literature related to studies on the perceptions and attitudes of museum visitors, allowing us to understand what factors explain the degree of satisfaction with the visit. Knowledge of these elements is important for the design of different marketing policies and planning of activities and heritage management by the authorities of both the museums and the city, with the aim of increasing the tourist flow. In this sense, it is expected that this contribution can serve as a reference not only to the authorities of the museum and the city of Guanajuato, but that the results obtained also provide useful information for the orientation of policies to those who are in charge of tourism management culture in different tourist destinations. With all of the above, an attempt has been made to find out the profile of visitors to the Guanajuato Mummies Museum, which is one of the most important in Mexico, not only because of its influx but also because of its income and that could be increased if they meet the specific demands of your visitors presenting areas of opportunity. They are not decisions that must be taken in isolation, but rather jointly between the interested parties, public, private and of course coordinating with the city of Guanajuato since they are not separate entities. Guanajuato cannot be understood without its Museum of the Mummies and vice versa.

© Revista de estudios regionales 2014 Universidades Públicas de Andalucía