Planeación turística: el caso del municipio de Santa María Jacatepec, Oaxaca, México

Beatriz Acosta Uribe, Frank Pulido Criollo, Nelly Eblin Barrientos Gutiérrez


La planificación se presenta en este estudio como una herramienta sustantiva para el desarrollo sostenible, particularmente para las comunidades locales de carácter rural en México. La propuesta detalla el desarrollo metodológico del modelo de planificación turística en una de las regiones de gran potencial turístico en el sureste mexicano; reporta cuatro etapas y pone de manifiesto el interés del modelo por promover la autodeterminación de los pueblos y una perspectiva integral de la planificación.


Planning is presented in this study as a substantive tool for sustainable development, particularly for rural local communities in Mexico. The proposal details the methodological development of the regions of great tourist potential in the Mexican southeast; it reports four stages and highly the model’s interest in promoting the self-determination of peoples and an integral perspective of planning.

The general objective of this study was to carry out the first two stages (tourism preview and environmental conditions) of an integrated tourism planning model (see figure 1) in the municipality of Santa María Jacatepec, Oaxaca, Mexico.

In the diagnosis of communities, information was collected from 474 people (185 men and 293 women). For the characterization of the potential demand, an intentional sample was carried out, administering the instrument to 359 people 8188 women, 168 men). In the characterization of the real demand, 631 hikers 8309 men and 322 women) from the tourist centers of Zuzul, San Martín and Playas de Santa María Jacatepec participated. The instruments administered were the household questionnaire proposed by Chancho (2010), potential demand questionnaire (Chancho, 2010) and the questionnaire of expectations of real demand from tourism products (López and De León, 2002).

The results were divided into four sections: 1) Diagnosis of communities, 2) Characterization of potential demand, 3) Characterization of real demand, and 4) External analysis and projections.

The results of the diagnosis of communities reported that 9 out of 10 respondents were aware of the tourist activities offered by the municipality. Regarding the tourist attractions offered, natural sites were the most mentioned (n=651). Regarding the perception of the inhabitants about accommodation, food, transportation in their localities and the tourist guide, the first three were evaluated as “good”. However, the last one was described as “bad”. Likewise, it was reported that a third of the inhabitants of the community mentioned that the main problems for which the flow of tourists does not increase are due to the tourist superstructure and tourist infrastructure, as well as the little interest of the community for the sightseeing. Another aspect that was evaluated was the interest and availability of time to train and work in tourism activities. The results reported that three quarters of the people surveyed answered affirmatively. Regarding the most attractive type of business, in case of having financial support from the government, the people of the communities leaned towards the restaurant industry. Regarding the availability of time to work in tourism activities and receive training, in the first aspect, 7 out of 10 people in the community are willing to work 4 hours or more; In the second aspect, 4 out of 10 people reported willingness to receive training courses 2 to 3 times a year.

Regarding the characterization of potential demand, the results reported that almost three quarters of those surveyed (262, 72.98%) have visited some place in Santa María Jacatepec. As can be seen, the destinations most visited by those surveyed are Zuzul Spa (210, 52.37%) and San Martín (122, 30.42%), and to a lesser extent various places in Santa María Jacatepec (37, 9.23%). Regarding the tourist plant, they were specifically asked about accommodation, of which 6 out of 10 mentioned not having stayed (210, 58.50%). Regarding transportation services, 4 out of 10 visitors used their own transportation to get the tourist site (116, 40.14%); 3 out of 10 used the taxi as a means of transportation (84, 29.07%), and the same amount (83, 28.72%) demanded means of public transportation. Regarding travel motivations, tourist reasons stood out (218, 59.33%). Regarding the type of tourism, they do in Santa María Jacatepec, half of the respondents mentioned that they did adventure tourism (139, 51.48%). In summary, it can be mentioned that due to temporary mobility, people who come to visit Santa María Jacatepec do so for picnic or excursion. Likewise, the visitor can be considered as a sporadic hiker, since the frequency of trips of two thirds is once a year (131, 36.49%), as well as a seasonal hiker, since the time when the municipality of San María Jacatepec is during the months of April-June.

On the other hand, the results of the characterization of the real demand reported that for hiker’s motivation is the most important aspect, highlighting the experience lived in the place and the tranquility that it offers. Likewise, facilities and infrastructure are important factors for visitors. When evaluating the level of satisfaction perceived in the tourist centers, for the hikers, in the first place, the place satisfied their motivation, that is, they felt the experience of being in the place and they perceived an environment of tranquility. Likewise, the accessibility to the destination was a satisfactory factor. The expectations were evaluated from the difference between the importance granted and the satisfaction provided by the tourist centers. In the areas of facilities, tourist attraction, motivation and accessibility, the expectations of hikers were met.

The results of the external analysis and projections were as follows:


·         Awareness of the inhabitants of the municipality of Santa María Jacatepec about the tourist activities that they can offer.

·         Community identification of various natural sites and locations that can offer tourism activities.

·         Good perception regarding its superstructure (food and lodging) and infrastructure (basic services).


·         Interest and availability of the inhabitants of Santa María Jacatepec to undertake and be trained in tourist activities.

·         Identification of the inhabitants of the type of tourism that Santa María Jacatepec can offer.

·         Identification of the community of tourist activities that they can undertake.


·         There are no tourist networks that offer the services and products of Santa María Jacatepec.

·         Lack of interest on the part of the inhabitants, they do not see tourism as a source that generates enough income to survive.

·         There is a poor perception of the community regarding tourist guides.

·         The insufficient superstructure (hotels and restaurants) and tourist infrastructure have not encouraged the influx of tourists.

·         The deficient tourist promotion means that the attractions and projects are forgotten.


·         There is not training from the government to encourage and motivate the inhabitants to offer tourist activities.

·         Poor condition of access roads.

The results were supported at all times by the active participation of the community, by actual and potential consumers. The study offered the possibility of knowing the reality, analyzing it and, most importantly, using it to move to the design of the tourism project and the action plan for the development of the tourism product. In such a way that the essential minimum conditions are generated for the use of the natural and cultural heritage, and the promotion of the development of the municipality of Santa María Jacatepec, Oaxaca. At this point, government intervention is vital, the various levels of government should focus on promoting the development of the minimum essential infrastructure and creating the conditions to introduce tourism products into the tourism market (García et. al., 2022).

© Revista de estudios regionales 2014 Universidades Públicas de Andalucía